Refined Sugar: The Sweetest Poison of All
A multitude of common physical and mental ailments are strongly
linked to the consuming of 'pure', refined sugar.
by William Dufty © 1975
Extracted/edited from his book Sugar Blues
First published by Chilton Book Co. Padnor, PA, USA
Currently published by Warner Books, USA.
WHY SUGAR IS TOXIC TO THE BODY
In 1957, Dr William
Coda Martin tried to answer the question: When is a food a food and
when is it a poison? His working definition of "poison" was:
"Medically: Any substance applied to the body, ingested or developed
within the body, which causes or may cause disease. Physically: Any
substance which inhibits the activity of a catalyst which is a minor
substance, chemical or enzyme that activates a reaction."1
The dictionary gives an even broader definition for "poison": "to
exert a harmful influence on, or to pervert".
Dr Martin classified refined sugar as a poison
because it has been depleted of its life forces, vitamins and
minerals. "What is left consists of pure, refined carbohydrates. The
body cannot utilize this refined starch and carbohydrate unless the
depleted proteins, vitamins and minerals are present. Nature
supplies these elements in each plant in quantities sufficient to
metabolize the carbohydrate in that particular plant. There is no
excess for other added carbohydrates. Incomplete carbohydrate
metabolism results in the formation of 'toxic metabolite' such as
pyruvic acid and abnormal sugars containing five carbon atoms.
Pyruvic acid accumulates in the brain and nervous system and the
abnormal sugars in the red blood cells. These toxic metabolites
interfere with the respiration of the cells. They cannot get
sufficient oxygen to survive and function normally. In time, some of
the cells die. This interferes with the function of a part of the
body and is the beginning of degenerative disease."2
Refined sugar is lethal when ingested by humans
because it provides only that which nutritionists describe as
"empty" or "naked" calories. It lacks the natural minerals which are
present in the sugar beet or cane. In addition, sugar is worse than
nothing because it drains and leaches the body of precious vitamins
and minerals through the demand its digestion, detoxification and
elimination make upon one's entire system.
So essential is balance to our bodies that we
have many ways to provide against the sudden shock of a heavy intake
of sugar. Minerals such as sodium (from salt), potassium and
magnesium (from vegetables), and calcium (from the bones) are
mobilized and used in chemical transmutation; neutral acids are
produced which attempt to return the acid-alkaline balance factor of
the blood to a more normal state.
Sugar taken every day produces a continuously
overacid condition, and more and more minerals are required from
deep in the body in the attempt to rectify the imbalance. Finally,
in order to protect the blood, so much calcium is taken from the
bones and teeth that decay and general weakening begin.
Excess sugar eventually affects every organ in
the body. Initially, it is stored in the liver in the form of
glucose (glycogen). Since the liver's capacity is limited, a daily
intake of refined sugar (above the required amount of natural sugar)
soon makes the liver expand like a balloon. When the liver is filled
to its maximum capacity, the excess glycogen is returned to the
blood in the form of fatty acids. These are taken to every part of
the body and stored in the most inactive areas: the belly, the
buttocks, the breasts and the thighs.
When these comparatively harmless places are
completely filled, fatty acids are then distributed among active
organs, such as the heart and kidneys. These begin to slow down;
finally their tissues degenerate and turn to fat. The whole body is
affected by their reduced ability, and abnormal blood pressure is
created. The parasympathetic nervous system is affected; and organs
governed by it, such as the small brain, become inactive or
paralyzed. (Normal brain function is rarely thought of as being as
biologic as digestion.) The circulatory and lymphatic systems are
invaded, and the quality of the red corpuscles starts to change. An
overabundance of white cells occurs, and the creation of tissue
becomes slower. Our body's tolerance and immunizing power becomes
more limited, so we cannot respond properly to extreme attacks,
whether they be cold, heat, mosquitoes or microbes.
Excessive sugar has a strong mal-effect on the
functioning of the brain. The key to orderly brain function is
glutamic acid, a vital compound found in many vegetables. The B
vitamins play a major role in dividing glutamic acid into
antagonistic-complementary compounds which produce a "proceed" or
"control" response in the brain. B vitamins are also manufactured by
symbiotic bacteria which live in our intestines. When refined sugar
is taken daily, these bacteria wither and die, and our stock of B
vitamins gets very low. Too much sugar makes one sleepy; our ability
to calculate and remember is lost.
SUGAR: HARMFUL TO HUMANS AND ANIMALS
Shipwrecked sailors who ate and drank nothing but
sugar and rum for nine days surely went through some of this trauma;
the tales they had to tell created a big public relations problem
for the sugar pushers.
This incident occurred when a vessel carrying a
cargo of sugar was shipwrecked in 1793. The five surviving sailors
were finally rescued after being marooned for nine days. They were
in a wasted condition due to starvation, having consumed nothing but
sugar and rum.
The eminent French physiologist F. Magendie was
inspired by that incident to conduct a series of experiments with
animals, the results of which he published in 1816. In the
experiments, he fed dogs a diet of sugar or olive oil and water. All
the dogs wasted and died.3
The shipwrecked sailors and the French
physiologist's experimental dogs proved the same point. As a steady
diet, sugar is worse than nothing. Plain water can keep you alive
for quite some time. Sugar and water can kill you. Humans [and
animals] are "unable to subsist on a diet of sugar".4
The dead dogs in Professor Magendie's laboratory
alerted the sugar industry to the hazards of free scientific
inquiry. From that day to this, the sugar industry has invested
millions of dollars in behind-the-scenes, subsidized science. The
best scientific names that money could buy have been hired, in the
hope that they could one day come up with something at least
pseudoscientific in the way of glad tidings about sugar.
It has been proved, however, that (1) sugar is a
major factor in dental decay; (2) sugar in a person's diet does
cause overweight; (3) removal of sugar from diets has cured symptoms
of crippling, worldwide diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart
Sir Frederick Banting, the codiscoverer of
insulin, noticed in 1929 in Panama that, among sugar plantation
owners who ate large amounts of their refined stuff, diabetes was
common. Among native cane-cutters, who only got to chew the raw
cane, he saw no diabetes.
However, the story of the public relations
attempts on the part of the sugar manufacturers began in Britain in
1808 when the Committee of West India reported to the House of
Commons that a prize of twenty-five guineas had been offered to
anyone who could come up with the most "satisfactory" experiments to
prove that unrefined sugar was good for feeding and fattening oxen,
cows, hogs and sheep.5
Food for animals is often seasonal, always expensive. Sugar, by
then, was dirt cheap. People weren't eating it fast enough.
Naturally, the attempt to feed livestock with
sugar and molasses in England in 1808 was a disaster. When the
Committee on West India made its fourth report to the House of
Commons, one Member of Parliament, John Curwin, reported that he had
tried to feed sugar and molasses to calves without success. He
suggested that perhaps someone should try again by sneaking sugar
and molasses into skimmed milk. Had anything come of that, you can
be sure the West Indian sugar merchants would have spread the news
around the world. After this singular lack of success in pushing
sugar in cow pastures, the West Indian sugar merchants gave up.
With undaunted zeal for increasing the market
demand for the most important agricultural product of the West
Indies, the Committee of West India was reduced to a tactic that has
served the sugar pushers for almost 200 years: irrelevant and
transparently silly testimonials from faraway, inaccessible people
with some kind of "scientific" credentials. One early commentator
called them "hired consciences".
The House of Commons committee was so hard-up for
local cheerleaders on the sugar question, it was reduced to quoting
a doctor from faraway Philadelphia, a leader of the recent American
colonial rebellion: "The great Dr Rush of Philadelphia is reported
to have said that 'sugar contains more nutrients in the same bulk
than any other known substance'." (Emphasis added.) At the same
time, the same Dr Rush was preaching that masturbation was the cause
of insanity! If a weasel-worded statement like that was quoted, one
can be sure no animal doctor could be found in Britain who would
recommend sugar for the care and feeding of cows, pigs or sheep.
While preparing his epochal volume, A History of
Nutrition, published in 1957, Professor E. V. McCollum (Johns
Hopkins University), sometimes called America's foremost
nutritionist and certainly a pioneer in the field, reviewed
approximately 200,000 published scientific papers, recording
experiments with food, their properties, their utilization and their
effects on animals and men. The material covered the period from the
mid-18th century to 1940. From this great repository of scientific
inquiry, McCollum selected those experiments which he regarded as
significant "to relate the story of progress in discovering human
error in this segment of science [of nutrition]". Professor McCollum
failed to record a single controlled scientific experiment with
sugar between 1816 and 1940.
Unhappily, we must remind ourselves that
scientists today, and always, accomplish little without a sponsor.
The protocols of modern science have compounded the costs of
We have no right to be surprised when we read the
introduction to McCollum's A History of Nutrition and find
that "The author and publishers are indebted to The Nutrition
Foundation, Inc., for a grant provided to meet a portion of the cost
of publication of this book". What, you might ask, is The Nutrition
Foundation, Inc.? The author and the publishers don't tell you. It
happens to be a front organization for the leading sugar-pushing
conglomerates in the food business, including the American Sugar
Refining Company, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, Curtis Candy Co., General
Foods, General Mills, Nestlé Co., Pet Milk Co. and Sunshine
Biscuits-about 45 such companies in all.
Perhaps the most significant thing about
McCollum's 1957 history was what he left out: a monumental earlier
work described by an eminent Harvard professor as "one of those
epochal pieces of research which makes every other investigator
desirous of kicking himself because he never thought of doing the
same thing". In the 1930s, a research dentist from Cleveland, Ohio,
Dr Weston A. Price, traveled all over the world-from the lands of
the Eskimos to the South Sea Islands, from Africa to New Zealand.
His Nutrition and Physical Degeneration: A Comparison of
Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects,6
which is illustrated with hundreds of photographs, was first
published in 1939.
Dr Price took the whole world as his laboratory.
His devastating conclusion, recorded in horrifying detail in area
after area, was simple. People who live under so-called backward
primitive conditions had excellent teeth and wonderful general
health. They ate natural, unrefined food from their own locale. As
soon as refined, sugared foods were imported as a result of contact
with "civilization", physical degeneration began in a way that was
definitely observable within a single generation.
Any credibility the sugar pushers have is based
on our ignorance of works like that of Dr Price. Sugar manufacturers
keep trying, hoping and contributing generous research grants to
colleges and universities; but the research laboratories never come
up with anything solid the manufacturers can use. Invariably, the
research results are bad news.
"Let us go to the ignorant savage, consider his
way of eating and be wise," Harvard professor Ernest Hooten said in
Apes, Men, and Morons.7
"Let us cease pretending that toothbrushes and toothpaste are any
more important than shoe brushes and shoe polish. It is store food
that has given us store teeth."
When the researchers bite the hands that feed
them, and the news gets out, it's embarrassing all around. In 1958,
Time magazine reported that a Harvard biochemist and his assistants
had worked with myriads of mice for more than ten years, bankrolled
by the Sugar Research Foundation, Inc. to the tune of $57,000, to
find out how sugar causes dental cavities and how to prevent this.
It took them ten years to discover that there was no way to prevent
sugar causing dental decay. When the researchers reported their
findings in the Dental Association Journal, their source of
money dried up. The Sugar Research Foundation withdrew its support.
The more that the scientists disappointed them,
the more the sugar pushers had to rely on the ad men.
SUCROSE: "PURE" ENERGY AT A PRICE
When calories became the big thing in the 1920s,
and everybody was learning to count them, the sugar pushers turned
up with a new pitch. They boasted there were 2,500 calories in a
pound of sugar. A little over a quarter-pound of sugar would produce
20 per cent of the total daily quota.
"If you could buy all your food energy as cheaply
as you buy calories in sugar," they told us, "your board bill for
the year would be very low. If sugar were seven cents a pound, it
would cost less than $35 for a whole year."
A very inexpensive way to kill yourself.
"Of course, we don't live on any such unbalanced
diet," they admitted later. "But that figure serves to point out how
inexpensive sugar is as an energy-building food. What was once a
luxury only a privileged few could enjoy is now a food for the
poorest of people."
Later, the sugar pushers advertised that sugar
was chemically pure, topping Ivory soap in that department, being
99.9 per cent pure against Ivory's vaunted 99.44 per cent. "No food
of our everyday diet is purer," we were assured.
What was meant by purity, besides the unarguable
fact that all vitamins, minerals, salts, fibres and proteins had
been removed in the refining process? Well, the sugar pushers came
up with a new slant on purity.
"You don't have to sort it like beans, wash it
like rice. Every grain is like every other. No waste attends its
use. No useless bones like in meat, no grounds like coffee."
"Pure" is a favorite adjective of the sugar
pushers because it means one thing to the chemists and another thing
to the ordinary mortals. When honey is labeled pure, this means that
it is in its natural state (stolen directly from the bees who made
it), with no adulteration with sucrose to stretch it and no harmful
chemical residues which may have been sprayed on the flowers. It
does not mean that the honey is free from minerals like iodine,
iron, calcium, phosphorus or multiple vitamins. So effective is the
purification process which sugar cane and beets undergo in the
refineries that sugar ends up as chemically pure as the morphine or
the heroin a chemist has on the laboratory shelves. What nutritional
virtue this abstract chemical purity represents, the sugar pushers
never tell us.
Beginning with World War I, the sugar pushers
coated their propaganda with a preparedness pitch. "Dietitians have
known the high food value of sugar for a long time," said an
industry tract of the 1920s. "But it took World War I to bring this
home. The energy-building power of sugar reaches the muscles in
minutes and it was of value to soldiers as a ration given them just
before an attack was launched." The sugar pushers have been harping
on the energy-building power of sucrose for years because it
contains nothing else. Caloric energy and habit-forming taste:
that's what sucrose has, and nothing else.
All other foods contain energy plus. All foods
contain some nutrients in the way of proteins, carbohydrates,
vitamins or minerals, or all of these. Sucrose contains caloric
The "quick" energy claim the sugar pushers talk
about, which drives reluctant doughboys over the top and drives
children up the wall, is based on the fact that refined sucrose is
not digested in the mouth or the stomach but passes directly to the
lower intestines and thence to the bloodstream. The extra speed with
which sucrose enters the bloodstream does more harm than good.
Much of the public confusion about refined sugar
is compounded by language. Sugars are classified by chemists as
"carbohydrates". This manufactured word means "a substance
containing carbon with oxygen and hydrogen". If chemists want to use
these hermetic terms in their laboratories when they talk to one
another, fine. The use of the word "carbohydrate" outside the
laboratory-especially in food labeling and advertising lingo-to
describe both natural, complete cereal grains (which have been a
principal food of mankind for thousands of years) and man-refined
sugar (which is a manufactured drug and principal poison of mankind
for only a few hundred years) is demonstrably wicked. This kind of
confusion makes possible the flimflam practiced by sugar pushers to
confound anxious mothers into thinking kiddies need sugar to
In 1973, the Sugar Information Foundation placed
full-page advertisements in national magazines. Actually, the ads
were disguised retractions they were forced to make in a strategic
retreat after a lengthy tussle with the Federal Trade Commission
over an earlier ad campaign claiming that a little shot of sugar
before meals would "curb" your appetite. "You need carbohydrates.
And it so happens that sugar is the best-tasting carbohydrate." You
might as well say everybody needs liquids every day. It so happens
that many people find champagne is the best-tasting liquid. How long
would the Women's Christian Temperance Union let the liquor lobby
get away with that one?
The use of the word "carbohydrate" to describe
sugar is deliberately misleading. Since the improved labeling of
nutritional properties was required on packages and cans, refined
carbohydrates like sugar are lumped together with those
carbohydrates which may or may not be refined. The several types of
carbohydrates are added together for an overall carbohydrate total.
Thus, the effect of the label is to hide the sugar content from the
unwary buyer. Chemists add to the confusion by using the word
"sugar" to describe an entire group of substances that are similar
but not identical.
Glucose is a sugar found usually with other
sugars, in fruits and vegetables. It is a key material in the
metabolism of all plants and animals. Many of our principal foods
are converted into glucose in our bodies. Glucose is always present
in our bloodstream, and it is often called "blood sugar".
Dextrose, also called "corn sugar", is derived
synthetically from starch. Fructose is fruit sugar. Maltose is malt
sugar. Lactose is milk sugar. Sucrose is refined sugar made from
sugar cane and sugar beet.
Glucose has always been an essential element in
the human bloodstream. Sucrose addiction is something new in the
history of the human animal. To use the word "sugar" to describe two
substances which are far from being identical, which have different
chemical structures and which affect the body in profoundly
different ways compounds confusion.
It makes possible more flimflam from the sugar
pushers who tell us how important sugar is as an essential component
of the human body, how it is oxidized to produce energy, how it is
metabolized to produce warmth, and so on. They're talking about
glucose, of course, which is manufactured in our bodies. However,
one is led to believe that the manufacturers are talking about the
sucrose which is made in their refineries. When the word "sugar" can
mean the glucose in your blood as well as the sucrose in your
Coca-Cola, it's great for the sugar pushers but it's rough on
People have been bamboozled into thinking of
their bodies the way they think of their cheque accounts. If they
suspect they have low blood sugar, they are programmed to snack on
vending machine candies and sodas in order to raise their blood
sugar level. Actually, this is the worst thing to do. The level of
glucose in their blood is apt to be low because they are addicted to
sucrose. People who kick sucrose addiction and stay off sucrose find
that the glucose level of their blood returns to normal and stays
Since the late 1960s, millions of Americans have
returned to natural food. A new type of store, the natural food
store, has encouraged many to become dropouts from the supermarket.
Natural food can be instrumental in restoring health. Many people,
therefore, have come to equate the word "natural" with "healthy". So
the sugar pushers have begun to pervert the word "natural" in order
to mislead the public.
"Made from natural ingredients", the television
sugar-pushers tell us about product after product. The word "from"
is not accented on television. It should be. Even refined sugar is
made from natural ingredients. There is nothing new about that. The
natural ingredients are cane and beets. But that four-letter word
"from" hardly suggests that 90 per cent of the cane and beet have
been removed. Heroin, too, could be advertised as being made from
natural ingredients. The opium poppy is as natural as the sugar
beet. It's what man does with it that tells the story.
If you want to avoid sugar in the supermarket,
there is only one sure way. Don't buy anything unless it says on the
label prominently, in plain English: "No sugar added". Use of the
word "carbohydrate" as a "scientific" word for sugar has become a
standard defense strategy with sugar pushers and many of their
medical apologists. It's their security blanket.
CORRECT FOOD COMBINING
Whether it's sugared cereal or pastry and black
coffee for breakfast, whether it's hamburgers and Coca-Cola for
lunch or the full "gourmet" dinner in the evening, chemically the
average American diet is a formula that guarantees bubble, bubble,
Unless you've taken too much insulin and, in a
state of insulin shock, need sugar as an antidote, hardly anyone
ever has cause to take sugar alone. Humans need sugar as much as
they need the nicotine in tobacco. Crave it is one thing-need it is
another. From the days of the Persian Empire to our own, sugar has
usually been used to hop up the flavour of other food and drink, as
an ingredient in the kitchen or as a condiment at the table. Let us
leave aside for the moment the known effect of sugar (long-term and
short-term) on the entire system and concentrate on the effect of
sugar taken in combination with other daily foods.
When Grandma warned that sugared cookies before
meals "will spoil your supper", she knew what she was talking about.
Her explanation might not have satisfied a chemist but, as with many
traditional axioms from the Mosaic law on kosher food and separation
in the kitchen, such rules are based on years of trial and error and
are apt to be right on the button. Most modern research in combining
food is a laboured discovery of the things Grandma took for granted.
Any diet or regimen undertaken for the single
purpose of losing weight is dangerous, by definition. Obesity is
talked about and treated as a disease in 20th-century America.
Obesity is not a disease. It is only a symptom, a sign, a warning
that your body is out of order. Dieting to lose weight is as silly
and dangerous as taking aspirin to relieve a headache before you
know the reason for the headache. Getting rid of a symptom is like
turning off an alarm. It leaves the basic cause untouched.
Any diet or regimen undertaken with any objective
short of restoration of total health of your body is dangerous. Many
overweight people are undernourished. (Dr H. Curtis Wood stresses
this point in his 1971 book, Overfed But Undernourished.)
Eating less can aggravate this condition, unless one is concerned
with the quality of the food instead of just its quantity.
Many people-doctors included-assume that if
weight is lost, fat is lost. This is not necessarily so. Any diet
which lumps all carbohydrates together is dangerous. Any diet which
does not consider the quality of carbohydrates and makes the crucial
life-and-death distinction between natural, unrefined carbohydrates
like whole grains and vegetables and man-refined carbohydrates like
sugar and white flour is dangerous. Any diet which includes refined
sugar and white flour, no matter what "scientific" name is applied
to them, is dangerous.
Kicking sugar and white flour and substituting
whole grains, vegetables and natural fruits in season, is the core
of any sensible natural regimen. Changing the quality of your
carbohydrates can change the quality of your health and life. If you
eat natural food of good quality, quantity tends to take care of
itself. Nobody is going to eat a half-dozen sugar beets or a whole
case of sugar cane. Even if they do, it will be less dangerous than
a few ounces of sugar.
Sugar of all kinds-natural sugars, such as those
in honey and fruit (fructose), as well as the refined white stuff
(sucrose)-tends to arrest the secretion of gastric juices and have
an inhibiting effect on the stomach's natural ability to move.
Sugars are not digested in the mouth, like cereals, or in the
stomach, like animal flesh. When taken alone, they pass quickly
through the stomach into the small intestine. When sugars are eaten
with other foods-perhaps meat and bread in a sandwich-they are held
up in the stomach for a while. The sugar in the bread and the Coke
sit there with the hamburger and the bun waiting for them to be
digested. While the stomach is working on the animal protein and the
refined starch in the bread, the addition of the sugar practically
guarantees rapid acid fermentation under the conditions of warmth
and moisture existing in the stomach.
One lump of sugar in your coffee after a sandwich
is enough to turn your stomach into a fermenter. One soda with a
hamburger is enough to turn your stomach into a still. Sugar on
cereal-whether you buy it already sugared in a box or add it
yourself-almost guarantees acid fermentation.
Since the beginning of time, natural laws were
observed, in both senses of that word, when it came to eating foods
in combination. Birds have been observed eating insects at one
period in the day and seeds at another. Other animals tend to eat
one food at a time. Flesh-eating animals take their protein raw and
In the Orient, it is traditional to eat yang
before yin. Miso soup (fermented soybean protein, yang) for
breakfast; raw fish (more yang protein) at the beginning of the
meal; afterwards comes the rice (which is less yang than the miso
and fish); and then the vegetables which are yin. If you ever eat
with a traditional Japanese family and you violate this order, the
Orientals (if your friends) will correct you courteously but firmly.
The law observed by Orthodox Jews prohibits many
combinations at the same meal, especially flesh and dairy products.
Special utensils for the dairy meal and different utensils for the
flesh meal reinforce that taboo at the food's source in the kitchen.
Man learned very early in the game what improper
combinations of food could do to the human system. When he got a
stomach ache from combining raw fruit with grain, or honey with
porridge, he didn't reach for an antacid tablet. He learned not to
eat that way. When gluttony and excess became widespread, religious
codes and commandments were invoked against it. Gluttony is a
capital sin in most religions; but there are no specific religious
warnings or commandments against refined sugar because sugar
abuse-like drug abuse-did not appear on the world scene until
centuries after holy books had gone to press.
"Why must we accept as normal what we find in a
race of sick and weakened human beings?" Dr Herbert M. Shelton asks.
"Must we always take it for granted that the present eating
practices of civilized men are normal?... Foul stools, loose stools,
impacted stools, pebbly stools, much foul gas, colitis, haemorrhoids,
bleeding with stools, the need for toilet paper are swept into the
orbit of the normal."
When starches and complex sugars (like those in
honey and fruits) are digested, they are broken down into simple
sugars called "monosaccharides", which are usable
substances-nutriments. When starches and sugars are taken together
and undergo fermentation, they are broken down into carbon dioxide,
acetic acid, alcohol and water. With the exception of the water, all
these are unusable substances-poisons.
When proteins are digested, they are broken down
into amino acids, which are usable substances-nutriments. When
proteins are taken with sugar, they putrefy; they are broken down
into a variety of ptomaines and leucomaines, which are nonusable
Enzymic digestion of foods prepares them for use
by our body. Bacterial decomposition makes them unfit for use by our
body. The first process gives us nutriments; the second gives us
Much that passes for modern nutrition is obsessed
with a mania for quantitative counting. The body is treated like a
cheque account. Deposit calories (like dollars) and withdraw energy.
Deposit proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and
minerals-balanced quantitatively-and the result, theoretically, is a
healthy body. People qualify as healthy today if they can crawl out
of bed, get to the office and sign in. If they can't make it, call
the doctor to qualify for sick pay, hospitalization, rest
cure-anything from a day's pay without working to an artificial
kidney, courtesy of the taxpayers.
But what doth it profit someone if the
theoretically required calories and nutrients are consumed daily,
yet this random eat-on-the-run, snack-time collection of foods
ferments and putrefies in the digestive tract? What good is it if
the body is fed protein, only to have it putrefy in the
gastrointestinal canal? Carbohydrates that ferment in the digestive
tract are converted into alcohol and acetic acid, not digestible
"To derive sustenance from foods eaten, they must
be digested," Shelton warned years ago. "They must not rot."
Sure, the body can get rid of poisons through the
urine and the pores; the amount of poisons in the urine is taken as
an index to what's going on in the intestine. The body does
establish a tolerance for these poisons, just as it adjusts
gradually to an intake of heroin. But, says Shelton, "the discomfort
from accumulation of gas, the bad breath, and foul and unpleasant
odors are as undesirable as are the poisons".
SUGAR AND MENTAL HEALTH
In the Dark Ages, troubled souls were rarely
locked up for going off their rocker. Such confinement began in the
Age of Enlightenment, after sugar made the transition from
apothecary's prescription to candymaker's confection. "The great
confinement of the insane", as one historian calls it,10
began in the late 17th century, after sugar consumption in Britain
had zoomed in 200 years from a pinch or two in a barrel of beer,
here and there, to more than two million pounds per year. By that
time, physicians in London had begun to observe and record terminal
physical signs and symptoms of the "sugar blues".
Meanwhile, when sugar eaters did not manifest
obvious terminal physical symptoms and the physicians were
professionally bewildered, patients were no longer pronounced
bewitched, but mad, insane, emotionally disturbed. Laziness,
fatigue, debauchery, parental displeasure-any one problem was
sufficient cause for people under twenty-five to be locked up in the
first Parisian mental hospitals. All it took to be incarcerated was
a complaint from parents, relatives or the omnipotent parish priest.
Wet nurses with their babies, pregnant youngsters, retarded or
defective children, senior citizens, paralytics, epileptics,
prostitutes or raving lunatics-anyone wanted off the streets and out
of sight was put away. The mental hospital succeeded witch-hunting
and heresy-hounding as a more enlightened and humane method of
social control. The physician and priest handled the dirty work of
street sweeping in return for royal favours.
Initially, when the General Hospital was
established in Paris by royal decree, one per cent of the city's
population was locked up. From that time until the 20 century, as
the consumption of sugar went up and up-especially in the cities-so
did the number of people who were put away in the General Hospital.
Three hundred years later, the "emotionally disturbed" can be turned
into walking automatons, their brains controlled with psychoactive
Today, pioneers of orthomolecular psychiatry,
such as Dr Abram Hoffer, Dr Allan Cott, Dr A. Cherkin as well as Dr
Linus Pauling, have confirmed that mental illness is a myth and that
emotional disturbance can be merely the first symptom of the obvious
inability of the human system to handle the stress of sugar
In Orthomolecular Psychiatry, Dr Pauling writes:
"The functioning of the brain and nervous tissue is more sensitively
dependent on the rate of chemical reactions than the functioning of
other organs and tissues. I believe that mental disease is for the
most part caused by abnormal reaction rates, as determined by
genetic constitution and diet, and by abnormal molecular
concentrations of essential substances... Selection of food (and
drugs) in a world that is undergoing rapid scientific and
technological change may often be far from the best."
In Megavitamin B3 Therapy for Schizophrenia, Dr
Abram Hoffer notes: "Patients are also advised to follow a good
nutritional program with restriction of sucrose and sucrose-rich
Clinical research with hyperactive and psychotic
children, as well as those with brain injuries and learning
disabilities, has shown:
"An abnormally high family history of
diabetes-that is, parents and grandparents who cannot handle sugar;
an abnormally high incidence of low blood glucose, or functional
hypoglycemia in the children themselves, which indicates that their
systems cannot handle sugar; dependence on a high level of sugar in
the diets of the very children who cannot handle it.
"Inquiry into the dietary history of patients
diagnosed as schizophrenic reveals the diet of their choice is rich
in sweets, candy, cakes, coffee, caffeinated beverages, and foods
prepared with sugar. These foods, which stimulate the adrenals,
should be eliminated or severely restricted."
The avant-garde of modern medicine has
rediscovered what the lowly sorceress learned long ago through
painstaking study of nature.
"In more than twenty years of psychiatric work,"
writes Dr Thomas Szasz, "I have never known a clinical psychologist
to report, on the basis of a projective test, that the subject is a
normal, mentally healthy person. While some witches may have
survived dunking, no 'madman' survives psychological testing...there
is no behavior or person that a modern psychiatrist cannot plausibly
diagnose as abnormal or ill."
So it was in the 17th century. Once the doctor or
the exorcist had been called in, he was under pressure to do
something. When he tried and failed, the poor patient had to be put
away. It is often said that surgeons bury their mistakes. Physicians
and psychiatrists put them away; lock 'em up.
In the 1940s, Dr John Tintera rediscovered the
vital importance of the endocrine system, especially the adrenal
glands, in "pathological mentation"-or "brain boggling". In 200
cases under treatment for hypoadrenocorticism (the lack of adequate
adrenal cortical hormone production or imbalance among these
hormones), he discovered that the chief complaints of his patients
were often similar to those found in persons whose systems were
unable to handle sugar: fatigue, nervousness, depression,
apprehension, craving for sweets, inability to handle alcohol,
inability to concentrate, allergies, low blood pressure. Sugar
Dr Tintera finally insisted that all his patients
submit to a four-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) to find out
whether or not they could handle sugar. The results were so
startling that the laboratories double-checked their techniques,
then apologised for what they believed to be incorrect readings.
What mystified them was the low, flat curves derived from disturbed,
early adolescents. This laboratory procedure had been previously
carried out only for patients with physical findings presumptive of
Dorland's definition of schizophrenia (Bleuler's
dementia praecox) includes the phrase, "often recognized during or
shortly after adolescence", and further, in reference to hebephrenia
and catatonia, "coming on soon after the onset of puberty".
These conditions might seem to arise or become
aggravated at puberty, but probing into the patient's past will
frequently reveal indications which were present at birth, during
the first year of life, and through the preschool and grammar school
years. Each of these periods has its own characteristic clinical
picture. This picture becomes more marked at pubescence and often
causes school officials to complain of juvenile delinquency or
A glucose tolerance test at any of these periods
could alert parents and physicians and could save innumerable hours
and small fortunes spent in looking into the child's psyche and home
environment for maladjustments of questionable significance in the
emotional development of the average child.
The negativism, hyperactivity and obstinate
resentment of discipline are absolute indications for at least the
minimum laboratory tests: urinalysis, complete bloodcount, PBI
determination, and the five-hour glucose tolerance test. A GTT can
be performed on a young child by the micro-method without undue
trauma to the patient. As a matter of fact, I have been urging that
these four tests be routine for all patients, even before a history
or physical examination is undertaken.
In almost all discussions on drug addiction,
alcoholism and schizophrenia, it is claimed that there is no
definite constitutional type that falls prey to these afflictions.
Almost universally, the statement is made that all of these
individuals are emotionally immature. It has long been our goal to
persuade every physician, whether oriented toward psychiatry,
genetics or physiology, to recognise that one type of endocrine
individual is involved in the majority of these cases: the
Tintera published several epochal medical papers.
Over and over, he emphasised that improvement, alleviation,
palliation or cure was "dependent upon the restoration of the normal
function of the total organism". His first prescribed item of
treatment was diet. Over and over again, he said that "the
importance of diet cannot be overemphasised". He laid out a sweeping
permanent injunction against sugar in all forms and guises.
While Egas Moniz of Portugal was receiving a
Nobel Prize for devising the lobotomy operation for the treatment of
schizophrenia, Tintera's reward was to be harassment and hounding by
the pundits of organised medicine. While Tintera's sweeping
implication of sugar as a cause of what was called "schizophrenia"
could be confined to medical journals, he was let alone, ignored. He
could be tolerated-if he stayed in his assigned territory,
endocrinology. Even when he suggested that alcoholism was related to
adrenals that had been whipped by sugar abuse, they let him alone;
because the medicos had decided there was nothing in alcoholism for
them except aggravation, they were satisfied to abandon it to
Alcoholics Anonymous. However, when Tintera dared to suggest in a
magazine of general circulation that "it is ridiculous to talk of
kinds of allergies when there is only one kind, which is adrenal
glands impaired...by sugar", he could no longer be ignored.
The allergists had a great racket going for
themselves. Allergic souls had been entertaining each other for
years with tall tales of exotic allergies-everything from horse
feathers to lobster tails. Along comes someone who says none of this
matters: take them off sugar, and keep them off it.
Perhaps Tintera's untimely death in 1969 at the
age of fifty-seven made it easier for the medical profession to
accept discoveries that had once seemed as far out as the simple
oriental medical thesis of genetics and diet, yin and yang. Today,
doctors all over the world are repeating what Tintera announced
years ago: nobody, but nobody, should ever be allowed to begin what
is called "psychiatric treatment", anyplace, anywhere, unless and
until they have had a glucose tolerance test to discover if they can
So-called preventive medicine goes further and
suggests that since we only think we can handle sugar because we
initially have strong adrenals, why wait until they give us signs
and signals that they're worn out? Take the load off now by
eliminating sugar in all forms and guises, starting with that soda
pop you have in your hand.
The mind truly boggles when one glances over what
passes for medical history. Through the centuries, troubled souls
have been barbecued for bewitchment, exorcised for possession,
locked up for insanity, tortured for masturbatory madness,
psychiatrised for psychosis, lobotomised for schizophrenia. How many
patients would have listened if the local healer had told them that
the only thing ailing them was sugar blues?
1. Martin, William Coda, "When is a Food a
Food-and When a Poison?", Michigan Organic News, March
1957, p. 3.
3. McCollum, Elmer Verner, A History of Nutrition: The
Sequence of Ideas in Nutritional Investigation, Houghton
Mifflin Co., Boston, 1957, p. 87.
4. op. cit., p. 88.
5. op. cit., p. 86.
6. Price, Weston A., Nutrition and Physical Degeneration: A
Comparison of Primitive and Modern Diets and Their Effects,
The American Academy of Applied Nutrition, California, 1939,
7. Hooton, Ernest A., Apes, Men, and Morons, Putnam, New
8. Shelton, H. M., Food Combining Made Easy, Shelton
Health School, Texas, 1951, p. 32.
9. op. cit., p. 34.
10. Foucault, Michel, Madness and Civilization: A History of
Insanity in the Age of Reason, translated by R. Howard,
Pantheon, New York, 1965.
11. Pauling, Linus, "Orthomolecular Psychiatry", Science,
vol. 160, April 19, 1968, pp. 265-271.
12. Hoffer, Abram, "Megavitamin B3 Therapy for Schizophrenia",
Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, vol. 16, 1971,
13. Cott, Allan, "Orthomolecular Approach to the Treatment of
Learning Disabilities", synopsis of reprint article issued by
the Huxley Institute for Biosocial Research, New York.
14. Szasz, Thomas S., The Manufacture of Madness: A
Comparative Study of the Inquisition and the Mental Health
Movement, Harper & Row, New York, 1970.
15. Tintera, John W., Hypoadrenocorticism, Adrenal
Metabolic Research Society of the Hypoglycemia Foundation, Inc.,
Mt Vernon, New York, 1969.
Additional Information on Sugar
This page is not only about white sugar. It
is also about brown/ raw/ turbinado sugar, molasses, syrups, and
other concentrated sweeteners like : dextrose (glucose) ,
fructose, galactose, maltose, lactose, dextrin, dextrains, and
honey. Our body digests and absorbs these concentrated sources
of sugars rapidly, and quickly turns them into saturated fatty
acids and cholesterol. If we do not burn off the fat through
activity, it will start accumulating under our skin,in our lever
in our arteries and other organs.
One thing is common characteristic for all
those sweeteners: they are concentrated and composed of simple
sugars (monosaccharide and disaccharide). Simple sugars are
also called rapid sugars because they do not need digestion and
are absorbed rapidly in our bloodstream.
After being absorbed in our bloodstream, they
rise blood glucose levels too high. This condition is called
hyperglycemia, and is one of the symptoms of diabetes. If or
pancreas function as it should, it will produce enough insulin
to remove excess glucose from our bloodstream with amazing
But huge production of insulin can not be
stopped in the same moment as sugar stop coming in the
bloodstream. To much insulin will then cause too rapid fall of
glucose level in the blood. That is called hypoglycemia, and
symptoms may include depression, dizziness, crying spells,
aggression, insomnia, weakness, and even loss of
When blood glucose falls too low, our adrenal
glands will mobilize the body's stores of glycogen (starch like
carbohydrate , many glucose molecules hooked end to end in a
chain,stored in liver and muscle) and will also stimulate the
synthesis of glucose from proteins and other substances present
in our body.
A diet rich in sugars will catch our pancreas
and adrenal glands in a biochemical see-saw, overworking them.
It could weaken pancreas and result in diabetes. Cardiovascular
complications that follow excess glucose or fats kill many
diabetics. If our body is unable to use all of the extra fats
and cholesterol produced from sugars,it must dump the additional
load. Fats can be deposited in the cells of our liver, heart,
arteries, fat tissues, kidneys, muscles, and other organs. That
is beginning of fatty degeneration.
One of the aspects of fatty degeneration is
deposition of visible fat in places where it is not normally
found in healthy people. Fatty degeneration includes
atherosclerosis, fatty liver and kidneys, some tumors, obesity
and some forms of diabetes.
Sugars inhibit the function of our immune
system, and increase diseases caused by poor immune function,
such as colds, flu, AIDS, allergies, infections, ...
Sugars increase our body's production of
adrenaline by four times, which puts the body into a state of
'fight or flight' stress, without anything to fight or flee
from , except the consumption of sugar. This stress reaction
increases the production of both cholesterol and cortisone.
Cortisone inhibits immune function.
Sugars lack the vitamins and minerals
required for their own metabolism. To be metabolized, sugars
must draw on our body's stores of these nutrients. The more
sugars you eat, the more vitamins and minerals you need.
It can leach B, C, D vitamins, and those
calcium, phosphorous, iron, selenium, zinc,
chromium, vanadium, tin, boron, bismuth, rear earth elements
etc. from our teeth, bones, and tissues.
As these are depleted, our body becomes less
able to carry out other functions that require minerals and
vitamins to be present: to metabolize fats and cholesterol; to
convert cholesterol into bile acids for removal from our body
through the stool; or to burn-off excess fats as heat or
increased activity. As a result , our cholesterol level rises;
our metabolic rate goes down; fats burn more slowly; gall stones
are crystallizing in or liver; we feel less like exercising, and
our weight is increasing. We have already started walking our
way to cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
As you see , sugar is where it all starts, I
Sugar causes irritation and weakening of the
mucous membranes of the body and robs the teeth, bones and blood
of a great percentage of their minerals. Inflammatory diseases
of the breathing and digestive organs result from the use of
brown and white sugar.
If , after reading those facts you feel to
stop eating sugar , we are recommending next alternatives:
dry fruit, fresh fruit, fresh fruit juice,
resins, apple syrup, rice malt, barley malt.
But, do not just replace sugar with malt, or
apple syrup. It is also important to generally decrease
consumption of concentrated sweeteners. Eat more fresh fruit and
The easiest way of decreasing consumption of
sugar is by decreasing consumption of meat.
How to stop eating sugar ?
There is a balance between meat consumption
If you eat meat, you need sugar, and visa
versa. Serious trouble can happen if the balance is off which is
easy since sugar is addictive, like a drug. If you are a
vegetarian and eat mostly carbohydrates, the effect of extra
sugar is heightened.
One of the major drawbacks is that sugar
raises the insulin level, which inhibits the release of growth
hormones, which in turn depresses the immune system. Not
something you want to happen if you want to avoid sickness.
According to Kathleen DesMaisons in her book
Potatoes Not Prozac sugar sensitive people , those who have a
more volatile reaction to the substance, usually have low levels
of serotonin and low levels of beta endorphins.
The level of beta endorphins have a direct
impact on a person’s self esteem, tolerance for pain, sense of
connectiveness and to the ability to take personal
responsibility for action. It follows that with higher levels of
beta endorphins the disease management process would be easier.
When blood sugar spikes it signals the
adrenal glands to release more adrenaline. This leads to adrenal
fatigue and in turn makes blood sugar ups and downs ever more
pronounced. Note this, for many of us have adrenals already
fatigued from overeating of sugar.
According to William Duffy in "Sugar Blues"
the difference between sugar addiction and narcotic addiction is
largely one of degree. Here are some suggestions to make the
As you are reducing the amount of sugar
also reduce the amount of meat you are eating
Eat a bit of ginger before meals
Taking Colloidal minerals that contain
trace minerals Chromium and Vanadium would solve problem of
craving for Sugar and sweets !
Craving for Sugar and sweets is a symptom
of Chromium and Vanadium deficiency.
Don’t eat any concentrated sweetener for
Eat your breakfast as late as possible
and start with fruit
Make pause between fruit and other food
Never eat fruit together with a rest of
Make treats like cookies sweetened with
rice syrup (a honey like sweetener made from cultured rice)
or barley malt
Get to know some new foods that have a
subtle sweet taste from natural sugars. Try manna bread
(tastes like a muffin but is made only from sprouted grains)
Get to know more about the
sugar/depression/energy connection. Read Food and Healing,
Sugar Blues, or Potatoes Not Prozac
More about sugar:
Sugars are classified as either simple or
complex carbohydrates. Refined sugars such as white, brown, and
turbinado sugars, and the unrefined simple sugars, such as fruit
sweeteners and concentrated fruit juices, are all simple
carbohydrates. The grain syrups: barley malt and brown rice
syrup, contain complex carbohydrates besides some simple sugars.
Complex carbohydrates are a string of simple
sugars (glucose) strung together that must be broken back down
into simple sugars before they can be absorbed into the
bloodstream; whereas simple sugars can go directly into the
An influx of sugar into the blood stream
upsets the body's blood sugar balance, triggering the release of
insulin, which the body uses to keep blood sugar at a safe and
constant level. Insulin also promotes the storage of fat, so
when you eat sweets high in sugar and fat, you're making way for
rapid weight gain and elevated triglyceride levels, both of
which have been linked to cardiovascular disease. Complex
carbohydrates tend to be absorbed more slowly, lessening the
impact on blood sugar levels.
Refined sugars have been stripped of the
vitamins, minerals, and fiber that were originally present
before processing. White sugar is 99.9 percent sucrose, and
brown and turbinado are 96 percent sucrose. Brown sugar is white
sugar with molasses and/or caramel coloring added. Turbinado
sugar, also called raw sugar, is slightly less refined and
contains a trace amount of a few minerals.
Consequently, consuming large amounts of
refined sugars places an extra burden on the body to supply the
nutrients, specifically the B vitamins, chromium, magnesium, and
zinc, needed to convert glucose (blood sugar) into energy.
According to USDA biochemist Richard Anderson, refined sugar may
also impair the absorption of trace minerals like copper and
chromium present in some of the other foods we have eaten.
Refined simple sugars also have an impact on
brain chemistry. They raise serotonin levels, which can leave
you feeling drowsy. However, the unrefined simple fruit
sweeteners have less impact on brain chemistry because they are
high in the sugar fructose, which does not affect serotonin
Choosing natural sweeteners rich in complex
carbohydrates and reading labels before buying a product will
help you reduce your consumption of refined sugar. Natural
sweeteners retain most of their vitamins and minerals, and many
contain complex carbohydrates. Below is a list and brief
description of some of the natural sweeteners available.
carbohydrates in dry matter
% simple sugars in dry
- Brown Rice Syrup (Rice malt)
is made from
(yeast culture) fermented brown rice and sprouted
whole barley. Like barley malt, it is ground and
heated to make a thick syrup. Because of its mild
taste, it can be used as a substitute for white or
OK for sick people
but not too much !
It is one of the
best of all concentrated sweeteners !
Avoid it if you
have Candida Albicans (yeast) problem !
40 % complex
57 % maltose
- Barley Malt Syrup
is made from
(yeast culture) fermented whole barley which is
sprouted to break down some of the carbohydrate into
the simple sugar maltose. It is then ground and
heated to make a thick syrup. Barley malt is a good
substitute for brown and white sugar. It is
delicious in hot breakfast cereals, cookies, breads,
muffins, and recipes using carob.
OK for sick people
but not too much !
It is one of the
best of all concentrated sweeteners !
Avoid it if you
have Candida Albicans (yeast) problem !
33 % complex
66 % maltose
- Granulated Brown Rice
are made from
dried brown rice syrup or a combination of dried
brown rice syrup and powdered grape juice
concentrate. Brown rice sweeteners have a very mild
flavor and can be used to replace white or brown
sugar in baked goods.
OK for sick people
but not too much !
It is good
concentrated sweeteners !
Avoid it if you
have Candida Albicans (yeast) problem !
33 % or more complex
66 % maltose,
fructose, glucose, and sucrose
- Fruit Concentrate/Sweetener
juice concentrates such as grape or apple juice and
refrigerated jars of fruit concentrates which are
typically blends of juices such as peach, pear, and
pineapple juice. Fruit concentrates are thicker than
fruit juice concentrates and are made by cooking
whole fruits at very low temperatures until they
have been reduced to a thick syrup. Fruit sweeteners
work well in most baked goods.
They are not much
better then white or brown sugar !!!
If you are sick,
avoid it !!!
90 - 96 % simple
sugars, fructose, glucose, and sucrose
- Maple Syrup
is made from the
sap of sugar maple trees. Thirtyfive to 50 gallons
of sap are boiled to produce one gallon of maple
syrup. Grade A maple syrup has a lighter color and
flavor than Grade B, which is darker with a stronger
It is not much
better then white or brown sugar!!!
I do not recommend
96 % sucrose
is a mixture of
acid secretions from the glands of honeybees and
nectar from flowers. Although honey is a natural
sweetener, it is considered a refined sugar because
96% of dry matter are simple sugars: fructose,
glucose and sucrose.
It is sweeter and
higher in calories than refined white sugar. Honey
does contain some B vitamins, minerals, and enzymes.
However, the enzymes are generally destroyed by high
heat causing the honey to lose nutritional
properties when used in baking. God to use in
special cures, but not as a every day food !
It is not much
better then white or brown sugar!!!
I do not recommend
96 % simple sugars,
fructose, glucose, and sucrose
- Granulated Cane Juice
is made from
organically grown sugar cane juice that has been
filtered and dehydrated. Its a simple sugar that
tastes much like brown or turbinado sugar; however,
its less refined and contains more vitamins and
minerals. Granulated cane juice can be used as a
substitute for both white and brown sugar, but it is
still rich in sucrose.
It is not much
better then white or brown sugar!!!
I do not recommend
96 % sucrose
is a byproduct of
the refined white, brown, and turbinado sugars.
Sweet molasses or light molasses is the liquid left
after the first extraction of sugar crystals.
Blackstrap molasses is the liquid left after the
last extraction of sugar crystals, and has a
stronger, bittersweet flavor and is richer in
potassium, calcium, iron, and Bvitamins than sweet
molasses. Though molasses is better than white
sugar, it still contain a lot of it, so I can not
recommend eating molasses.
It is not much
better then white or brown sugar!!!
I do not recommend
96 % sucrose
Substituting One Sweetener
by Don Buscher, MSN
The granulated brown rice and cane juice
sweeteners are roughly equal in sweetness to refined white,
brown, or turbinado sugar and can be substituted on a cup for
cup basis without changing t anything else in the recipe.
When you substitute a liquid sweetener for a
dry one or vice versa, you will have to adjust the recipe to end
up with the right batter consistency. The chart (below) will
help you modify your recipes when using natural sweeteners.
To replace 1 cup
dry sweetener with 1 cup liquid sweetener:
liquid by 1/3 cup or add 4-5 tablespoons flour.
To replace 1 cup
dry sweetener with 3/4 cup honey:
liquid by 1/4 cup or add 1/3 cup flour.
To replace 1 cup
liquid sweetener with 1 cup dry sweetener:
add 1/3 cup water.
To replace 1 cup
liquid sweetener with 3/4 cup honey:
add 1/4 cup water.
Note: When using
thick liquid sweeteners, heat the jar in hot water
for five minutes to make pouring easier and spray
measuring cups with vegetable spray to prevent
Facts about White sugar consumption
The average American consumes an astounding
two pounds of sugar each week, which is not surprising
considering that highly refined sugars in the forms of sucrose
(table sugar), dextrose (corn sugar), and high-fructose corn
syrup are being processed into so many foods such as bread,
breakfast cereal, ketchup, mayonnaise, peanut butter, spaghetti
sauce, and a plethora of microwave meals.
Adults purchase over 50% of all chocolate
sold in USA.
An average American consume 147 pounds of
sweeteners each year.
Monoglycerides used in some ice creams are a
possible cancer causing agent in test animals.